Establishment of an Agency for reporting Agricultural Statistics (EARAS)

 

The scheme Establishment of an Agency for Reporting Agricultural Statistics is a 100% Central Sector Scheme. This scheme is a component of the main scheme  Improvement of Agricultural Statistics (I.A.S), which is implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation, Government of India.‘Improvement of Agricultural Statistics, which is a component of the Central Sector Scheme has three sub components, namely

(i)    Timely Reporting Scheme (TRS)

(ii)    Establishment of an Agency for Reporting Agricultural Statistics (EARAS)

(iii)   Improvement of crop Statistics (ICS)

The objective of the Improvement of Agricultural Statistics are given below

·         Obtain reliable and timely estimates of area under principal crops in each season

·         Generate estimates of area and production of principal crops in each season of an agricultural year.

·         Bring improvement in crop statistics by conducting spot supervision of  (a) area enumeration (b) area aggregation and (c) crop cutting experiment

Department of Economics and Statistics is the nodal agency of this scheme in Kerala. Agricultural Statistics is collected through sample surveys covering the entire state excluding regions declared as reserve forests. At present under this scheme 811 investigator zones are functioning and 100 clusters are selected randomly from each zone. Agriculture Statistics is being conducted from 1975-76 through EARAS for estimating the area of land within different types of production of major crops, area of different crops, productivity, irrigation and land utilization of every year in the state.

The major findings in the publication “Agricultural Statistics” prepared by this department in every agriculture year are made use of implementation of various decisions by Governments.

EARAS - AREA

Aim

            The objective of the scheme is collection of Agricultural Statistics which provides the estimates of Area of crops, crop production and yield rate and land utilization pattern of Agricultural Sector in Kerala.  The State and Central Government use this data for planning and development of policy formation.

            BTR is taken as the basic document in order to keep uniformity in the sampling procedure.  The survey is conducting by classifying the land into wet land and dry land. Also the geographical area of Kerala has been classified according to thirteen different patterns of land use such as Bearer and Un-cultivatable land, Building and Courtyard, Other non Agricultural uses etc.

            The period of Survey is one agricultural year from July 1st to June 30th of every year.  It is divided into 3 seasons namely; Autumn, Winter and Summer.  The area of crop is estimated by dividing them into Annual, Perennial and Seasonal crops.

            Also by contacting prominent leading cultivators and considering the weather reports etc forecast report and advance estimates of major crops have also been prepared and furnishing the data to the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operation, Government of India; every season.

Period of survey

            The period of survey started from July-1 to June 30th of every year. This period is divided into three seasons as follows:

Autumn           -           July                  -           October

Winter             -           November       -           February

Summer           -           March              -           June

 

As directed the above two visits will be in dry land and three in wet land for enumeration.

Block-A- Land Utilization

            This block is divided into thirteen ways.

1)      Building and Courtyard

2)      Other non-agricultural use:- This stand for all land occupied by Road, railways, canals and other land put up to other than agricultural use.

3)      Barren and uncultivable land

4)      Miscellaneous tree crops

5)      Permanent pastures and other grazing lands.

6)      Cultivable waste:- It is a land which can be cultivated, but remaining  un cultivated above 5 years.

7)      Other fallow: - The land not under cultivation within one year and five year are included  in this category.

8)      Current fallow:- The land which kept fallow during the current year (One year)

9)      Area under social forestry:- The area in which trees are planned by the side of roads and other compounds according to social forestry project.

10)        Water logged area:- Cannot be cultivated due to water logging and be cultivated after fitting by side.

11)  Still water land

12)  Marshy  land

13)  Net area sown

Block-B

      The Annual cropped area is divided in to three parts such as autumn, winter and summer

Wet land enumeration

The wet lands may be enumerated in three seasons accordingly. Annual crops may be reported in the season in which the harvest is done and the crops which is not taken harvest at the same season is reported as C.O.S and the name of the crop may be written in the harvest season. The area of the perennial crops and annual crops may be reported and write O.C in the form-I

Dry Land 1st Visit

            The duration of the first visit of the dry land is July 1st – December 31st . During the first visit of the dry land the season of the crops and area which is autumn and Winter season may be written in the same season.

Dry land 2nd Visit

            The duration is January 1st to June 30th. During these time the annual crops, seasonal crops and perennial  may be enumerated.

            The data of the perennial crops collected may be reported in the prescribed unit. A tree  which once  flowered  may consider as bearing tree. A land which is irrigated once in an year may be considered as irrigated.

Forecast report

For preparing the forecast report we must determine the condition factor. We can calculate the condition factor by oral conservation  with the 10 major cultivators of that panchayats about the area of previous year and current year of the particular crop.

 

Condition factor and rate of yield may be reported in the forecast report.

Advance Estimate

      It is submitting three advance estimation, Ist, IInd and IIIrd . Considering the all information for preparing the advance estimation for local enquiry about the area of cropping, the help of the Agricultural Officer, the opinion after the discussion with the major cultivation of that panchayath and the weather forecast report.

      For preparing the productivity, may be considered the local enquiry, weather report and the opinion of major cultivation.

            Second  and third estimation is preparing by including the variation of the previous estimation and so on.

General Crop Estimation Survey (GCES)

                  The General Crop Estimation Survey (GCES) under EARAS Scheme, Department is conducting crop cutting experiments of 19 crops (paddy, coconut, arecanut, tapioca, banana, plantain, pepper, pineapple,  nutmeg, cocoa, Jack, cashew, sugarcane, sesamum, betel leaves, tamarind, mango, ginger and turmeric)for the estimation of production and yield rate of crops. Production and productivity of paddy is estimating in three seasons and others are in annually.

·         From the Agricultural year 2016-17 onwards this department has been  estimating the season wise  mean yield of paddy (14 districts) and providing  the same to Agriculture Development and Farmers welfare Department.

·         The monthly, quarterly and seasonal progress report of crop cutting experiments of 19 crops is being  forwarded to GOI.

·         A report of Agricultural Statistics is published in every year. Block/District wise production and productivity of  major 19 crops are included in the report.

·          The details of training programme of Investigators, workload of primary workers and the crop cutting experiments are collected from the districts and forwarded to GOI.

Providing Mean yield of selected crops for crop insurance scheme being implemented by the National Agricultural Insurance Company

                  This department has been  providing the season wise mean yield of 4 crops to Modified National Agricultural Insurance Company of India Ltd (MNAIS) in connection with the crop insurance implemented in the State.  In addition to the crop cutting experiments conducted for the General crop estimation survey under EARAS schemes, additional crop cutting experiments of notified crops are also conducted by the investigators for furnishing the mean yield of crops for the implementation of crop Insurance Scheme in the state. At present Department is providing the Panchayat wise mean yield of paddy and block wise mean yield of Plantain, Banana and Tapioca to the Agricultural Insurance Company. The mean yield is calculated using the data from the schedules submitted by the District offices. The mean yield of Tapioca and Banana are estimating in Kharif and Rabi I season and Tapioca and plantain are in Rabi II season.

            The season wise pre-harvest report of Kottayam, Pathanamthitta and Alappuzha are collected and the same is forwarded to Agricultural Insurance Company.

The Scheme for Improvement of Crop Statistics (ICS)

The Scheme for ICS, which had a modest beginning in the year 1973-74, reached to the optimum coverage in subsequent years.  Since then, the scale of sample checks has been more or less stabilized.  During 2001-02, the scheme was under implementation in 22 States and UT’s including EARAS States of Kerala, Orissa and West Bengal.  In all the states, the checks were carried out by both the agencies except in Delhi where the work was taken up only in the Central Samples.  The work of checking up of crop abstract statements suspended in central sample in 1993-94 was revised in 1999-2000, in West Bengal the work is not prescribed under ICS

The Scheme accomplishes its objectives by conducting sample checks on the primary field work through:-

a)      Physical verification of the crop enumeration done by the village primary workers in a sample of about 10,000 village in each season.

b)      Checking of the aggregation of crop-wise area in the Khasra register of these villages and

c)      Inspection of about 31,000 crop cutting experiments at harvest stage in a year.

The Sample checks are undertaken by the supervisory staff of NSSO (FOD) and the State Government on a matching basis in two –non overlapping samples.  The basic data collected through these checks are exchanged between the two agencies.

Three schedules viz.AS.1.0, AS.1.1 and AS.2.0 for recording the finding of sample check on (a) enumeration of area in a village (b) aggregation of area and (c) the crop cutting experiments respectively, are designed to be filled in by the supervisory staff of central (NSSO-FOD) and State agencies after doing sample checks.  The filled-in schedules are sent to both the agencies on reciprocal basis for tabulation and analysis.  (The NSSO is responsible for all aspects of the scheme right from the primary stage of preparation of survey design, selection of sample units, field work of data processing and report writing).

The concurrent inspection of crop cutting experiments at harvest stage consists of examining whether the conduct of the experiments by the state primary workers conforms to the procedures prescribed under the GCES.  The inspection covers such aspects as the selection of files and random co-ordinates, making of experimental plots of specified size, harvesting of plants, weighment of the produce etc.  (In addition, the position regarding the supply and use of equipment’s for conducting the experiments, training received by primary workers, crop conditions, use of inputs etc.  is also ascertained).

The data collected through the sample check programme under the scheme for ICS are analyzed facilitating factual appraisal of the state systems with reference to the following.

·         Timeliness  in completion of area enumeration and working of the Timely Reporting Scheme (TRS)

·         Discrepancies in recording crop and crop area, their frequency and impact.

·         Discrepancies in recording ancillary information, their frequency and impact.

·         Discrepancies in crop abstract statements and their impact.

·         Discrepancies from the prescribed procedure for conducting crop cutting experiments and their impact.

(The yield data from the supervised experiments are also made use for obtaining the average yield rates of specified crops and their standard errors.  These estimates are forwarded to the Ministry of agriculture. They serve as one of the sources for preparation of advance estimate of crop production).

Two features introduced later in the ICS programme are (1) sample checks of aggregation of area figures above village level (2) District Level Committee consisting of representatives of the Central and State Governments to probe into the reasons for differences between the entries of the supervisor and primary worker in area enumeration.

EARAS (Establishment of an Agency for Reporting Agricultural Statistics)

v  100 % Central Sector Scheme (CSS 100%)

v  Sub-Components

·         Timely Reporting Scheme (TRS)

·         Establishment of an Agency for Reporting Agricultural Statistics (EARAS)

·         Improvement of Crop Statistics.

Main objective  of  IAS (Improvement of Agricultural Statistics)

v  Obtain reliable and timely estimates of area under principle crops in each season.

v  Generate estimates of area, Production of Principal crops in each season.

v  Bring improvement in crop statistics by conducting spot supervision.

Ø  Area Enumeration, Area Aggregation and Crop Cutting Experiment.

GCES (General Crop Estimation Survey)

v  Department is conducting crop cutting experiments of 19 crops.

v  Report published in every year

ICS (Improvement of Crop Statistics)

v  Physical verification of the crop enumeration done by the village primary workers in a sample of about 10000 villages in each season.

v  Checking of the aggregation of crop-wise area in the Khasra Register of these villages.

v  Preparation of about 31000 crop cutting experiments at harvest stage in a year


Details Collected

v  Timely completion of area enumeration and working of the Timely Reporting Scheme (TRS).

v  Discrepancies in recording crop and crop area and their frequency and impact.

v  Discrepancies in recording ancillary information, their frequency and impact.

v  Discrepancies in crop abstract statements and their impact.

v  Discrepancies from the prescribed procedure for conducting crop cutting experiments and their impact.

 

 

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