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Civil Registration System
Registration of births and deaths is an important source for demographic data for socio-economic development and population control in developing countries. Civil Registration System is a continuous, permanent and compulsory recording of the occurrence and characteristics of vital events. In the beginning the registration of births and deaths started on voluntary basis and there was no uniformity in statistical returns resulting in both under registration and incomplete coverage. In order to unify the civil registration activities, the Civil Registration System was introduced in India under the Registration of Births and Deaths Act (RBD Act), 1969.
This Act replaced the then existed laws and unified the system of registration through out the country. Under the RBD Act the registration of births and deaths was made compulsory; it has become mandatory on the part of head of house hold or his representative to report and register domiciliary vital events, for medical officers in charge of medical institution in respect of births and deaths occurring in these institution. The Act also provided the statutory authority at Centre, State, District and Peripheral level. It prescribed definitions, principles, personnel and penalties connected with enforcement of the Act. It enabled Central Government to insist uniformity in registration procedures and bring out comparability in vital statistics registered in different parts of the country. As per the Act, births and deaths are to be registered within 21 days after the occurrence of the events at the place of occurrence. The Registration of Births and Deaths Act 1969 (Central Act 18 of 1969) came into force in Kerala on 1st April 1970 by the Government of India Gazette notification dated 21st march 1970 along with many other states. The Kerala Registration of Births and Deaths Rules 1970 published in G.O.(P)No.7/70/LAD dated 29th June 1970 by S.R.O.No.262/70 Gazette dated 1st July 1970 have been approved by the Government of India under section 10(1) of the said Act.
Director of Panchayaths is the Chief Registrar of Birth and Deaths in Kerala and is the Chief executive authority for implementing the provisions of the Registration of Birth and Death Act. Chief Registrar will be assisted by a Deputy Chief Registrar. The Additional Director of Economics and Statistics is designated as the Additional Chief Registrar’ of Births and Deaths . A Deputy Chief Registrar, Deputy Director of Economics and Statistics, assists him. The local registrars of births and deaths appointed under this act are doing actual work of the registration. At the District level, the District Panchayaths Officer, secretaries of municipalities and corporations are empowered as the District Registrar of Births and Deaths. The Secretaries of Grama Panchayaths, health inspectors and health officers of Municipalities and Corporations and the executive officer of Kannur Cantonment are the local Registrar of the concerned registration units.
The legal part of birth and death registration cards are kept in the registration units and the statistical part is handed over to the District Office, Economics and Statistics. By collecting the data from 14 districts annual report is prepared and published in the Directorate.
1. Annual Vital statistic report – 2007 published
2. Annual Vital statistic report – 2008 under preparation
Vital rates of Kerala for the past 10 years
|Year||Birth Rate||Death Rate||Infant death rate||Still Birth rate||Maternal Death rate|
Spot Check Survey
The Registration of Birth and Death Act 1969 stipulates that every events should be registered in the respective registration units within 21 days from the date of occurrence. Even though the Act demands both fine and punishment, non- registration of events still exists to a certain extent. In order to overcome these discrepancies , a survey known as Spot Check Survey is introduced in the state. In Kerala the number of vital events occurring in the urban area is always higher than that of rural areas. This is mainly because of modern health facilities are available in urban areas. Besides these, most of the deaths in the rural areas happened in the house and the people are not interested to register these events. As a result the rate of vital events are higher in urban areas. Spt check survey can rectify these drawbacks to a certain extent.
The main objective of the survey is to estimate the under registration of vital events in the selected Municipalities/Corporations and to work out the actual vital rates of these areas. To estimate the residential vital rates o these municipalities/corporation. At present the scheme is implemented in 5 corporations and 29 municipalities. Annual report of “Residential Vital Rates of Municipalities/Corporations has been prepared by the Vital Statistics Division of the Directorate.
- Residential vital rates-2006 published
- Residential Vital rates-2007 under preparation.
Medical Certification of Cause of Death
Statistics on mortality plays an important role in the vital statistical system. To generate a reliable data on cause-specific mortality in the country on a regular basis, the Office of Registrar General of India introduced the scheme “Medical Certification of Cause of Death (MCCD)” under civil registration system. The information in death certificate is a valuable tool to the health planners, medical professionals and research workers. The size and geographical distribution of deaths in relation to prevalence of diseases, evaluation of risk of deaths from various cause at different ages, the medical implication of the conditions resulting in death, proportion of deaths occurring in hospitals are a few aspects of interest of health planners and administrators medical scientists etc. Hence they depend heavily on the data of cause of death for formulating their programme both curative and preventive. The scheme envisages the key indicators for analyzing the health trend in a scientific manner. The distribution of death by different age groups and various other characteristics are derived through MCCD. At present in Kerala the scheme is implemented in 5 centers viz, Thiruvanathapuram, Kollam, Kochi and Kozhikkode corporations and Alappuzha municipality. The coding work is entrusted with the deputy health officers posted from health department. After coding the data is forwarded to the Directorate for further processing and the annual report is prepared in the Directorate.
Sample Registration System
The registration of births & deaths is a statutory activity performed under the provision of RBD act 1969. Even though the registration is compulsory, the level of registration has continued to far from satisfactory in several States/Uts. With a view to generate reliable and continuous data on these indicators, the office of the RGI initiated the scheme Sample Registration System in 1964-65 on a pilot basis and on full scale from 1969-70 onwards. It is known as the major demographic sample survey in the countryThe Office of the Registrar General of India selects the sample units for the survey. Revision of SRS sampling frame is undertaken in every ten years based on the results of latest census. The first replacement was carried out in 1977-78 and the last being in 2004. At present SRS have 7597 sample units, 4433 in rural and 3164 in urban. In Kerala there are 250 samples consisting of 150 rural and 100 urban units. The implementation of the survey in rural samples are entrusted with our department. 150 PTE’s and 18 regular supervisors from census department are posted in various districts for conducting the survey.
The main objective is to provide reliable estimates of birth rate, death rate, infant mortality rate etc. for the rural and urban areas of the state. It also provides the data for other measures of fertility and mortality including total fertility, infant and child mortality rates etc.
The main components of SRS are:
1. Base-line survey of the sample units to obtain demographic details of the usual resident population of the samples
2. Continuous enumeration of vital events pertaining to usual resident population by the PTE
3. Independent retrospective HYS for recording births and deaths which occurred during the half year under reference and updating the house lists, house hold schedule and the list of women in reproductive age group along with their pregnancy status by the supervisor.
4. Matching of the events recorded by the enumerator and supervisor
5. Re-verification of unmatched and partially matched events
The fieldwork consists of continuous enumeration of vital events by a resident part time enumerator (PTE) and independent half yearly retrospective survey by a full time supervisor (staff from Census department). 18 supervisors are posted in the districts on regular basis. The data obtained through these two sources are matched .The unmatched and partially matched events are revarified in the field by ADO(SR) to get an unduplicated count of correct events. Special Survey on death has also been carried out with the HYS. The objective of the survey is to generate statistics on cause of death for rural areas using Verbal Autopsy (VA) forms. Over all supervision of the entire work have been entrusted to Deputy Director of the districts. Data obtained through SRS have been forwarded to RGI for estimating Vital Rates. Based on the data received from the survey, a publication namely “Sample Registration System in India” has been prepared and published by ORGI.
Birth Rates, Death Rates &Infant Mortality Rates of Kerala based on SRS data for the last ten years are given below
|Year||Birth Rate||Death Rate||Infant Mortality Rate|
1. 2nd HYS of 2008 completed
2. 1st HYS of 2009 started
3. Special survey on death based 2008 HYS’s is completed